Definitions

  

  • A
    Acceptance - The formal process of accepting delivery of a product or deliverable.
    Acceptance criteria- Performance requirements and essential conditions that have to be achieved before project deliverables are accepted.
    Accountability - The responsibility of program managers and staff to provide evidence to stakeholders and funding agencies that a program is effective and in conformance with its coverage, service, legal, and fiscal requirements.
    Acquisition - On this site, the term is used to indicate the full life of a system from initial concept and planning, through development and maintenance and operations (M&O) and continuing until the system is retired or shut down.
    Acquisition Life Cycle - The standard process used by the acquisition organization for defining how a system will be acquired and maintained from inception to retirement. For OSI, the Acquisition Life Cycle includes the following phases: Planning, Contracting, and Product Implementation and Acceptance.
    Action Item Management - Identification, analysis, tracking and resolution of specific defined tasks (usually related to project management concerns). Action Item tracking sometimes is a subset of Issue Management.
    Activity - A collection of business tasks typically executed in a sequential fashion in order to achieve intermediate results.
    Activity Analysis - The analysis and measurement of units of work or tasks that define a process. Measurement can be in terms of time, cost, or output.
    Activity Definition - Identification of specific activities that must be performed to produce the project deliverables. Also called activity description.
    Activity Description (AD) - A short phrase or label used in a project network diagram. The activity description normally describes the scope of work of the activity. See also activity definition.
    Administrative Expense - Expense that cannot be easily identified with a specific function or project but contributes in some way to the project or general business operations.
    Agency - OSI's parent organization is the California Health and Human Services Agency.
    Allocated Baseline - Documentation that describes the system design is known as the Allocated Baseline. The Allocated Baseline is the initial approved specification governing the development of configuration items as opposed to a Functional or Product Baseline.
    Alternatives - A number of different solutions and approaches that must be evaluated and chosen to attain the objectives of a project.
    Alternatives Analysis - Process of breaking down a complex situation to generate different solutions and approaches and evaluate the impact of trade-offs to attain objectives.
    Alternative Procurement - According to the State Contracting Manual, Vol 3, Section 3.B6.0, standard acquisition approaches are appropriate for most acquisition. Some business problems, however, offer unique challenges where the use of different procurement techniques, within a competitive framework, may better meet the State's needs. In such cases, a request to conduct an alternative procurement within the ITPP should be submitted to the DGS/PD. See SAM 4819.31. Due to the complexity of Alternative Procurements, only the DGS/PD has the authority to conduct such procurements.
    American National Standards Institute (ANSI) - Voluntary organization that helps set standards and also represents the United States in the International Standards Organization (ISO).
    Analysis - (1) Study and examination of something complex by separating it into more simple component. Typically, includes discovering the parts of the thing being studied, how they fit together, and why they are arranged in a particular way. (2) Study of variances for cause, impact, corrective action, and results.
    Approach - Overall method by which project objectives will be realized, including methodologies, life cycles, responsibilities, and other associated strategies, tactics, practices, and procedures.
    Approach Statement - A high-level description of how the project will accomplish its goals and objectives.
    Architecture Framework - A combination of structured processes, templates, and governance that facilitate the documentation of a architecture in a systematic manner.
    Archive - An Archive is a secure repository of Configuration Items often stored offsite for additional security. Archiving is a process of storing Configuration Items in a secure manner. The purpose of archiving is to provide recoverability to a past state. Although the process for creating an archive is similar to that of taking a baseline, the method of storage for both is different. Whereas baselines are maintained in easily accessible media for reference during the project lifecycle, archives are stored on secure media.
    As-Is - Also known as "current". A model of the current structure (process, data, applications, technology). The baseline used for measuring the success of future changes or improvements.
    Attribute - A characteristic of an Entity whose value may be used to help distinguish one instance of an Entity from other instances of the same Entity. For example, an Attribute of a “Person” Entity may be “Social Security Number (SSN)”. An SSN is used to distinguish one person (i.e. one instance of a “Person” Entity) from another.
    Audit Trail - Record of documentation describing actions taken, decisions made, and funds expended and earned on a project. Used to reconstruct the project after the fact for lessons learned and other purposes.
    Avoidance - Risk response strategy that eliminates the threat of a specific risk event, usually by eliminating its potential cause. The project management team can never eliminate all risk, but certain risk events often can be eliminated.
  • B
    Backup - Backup is a process of creating a copy of a configuration item to prevent the loss of work.
    Balanced Scorecard - An approach used to measure business performance. It includes not only financial performance but other elements such as customer value, internal business process, innovation, and employee performance. It is implemented by translating the organization’s vision and strategy statements into a comprehensive and quantifiable set of objectives and performance measures, by obtaining organization-wide acceptance of the measures, by creating appropriate reward systems, and by collecting and analyzing performance results as they related to the measures.
    Baseline - 1) (1) Baseline is a specification or product that has been formally reviewed and agreed upon, that thereafter serves as the basis for further development, and that can be changed only through formal change control process. (2) Baseline is a document or set of such documents formally designated and fixed at a specific time during the life cycle of a configuration item.
    Baseline Cost Estimate - Cost projection performed early in a program to serve as a reference point to all subsequent tracking comparing and audition.
    Benchmark - Standard point of reference used to define progress, improvement, or change.
    Benefit - Gain to be accrued from the successful completion of a project. Benefits are compared to costs to ensure the selection of the most advantageous project or the most effective approach to complete a project.
    Benefit-Cost Analysis - Process of estimating tangible and intangible costs (outlays) and benefits (returns) of various projects alternatives and using financial measures, such as return on investment or payback period, to evaluate the relative desirability of the alternatives.
    Best Value - Synonymous with "value effectiveness" and both mean factors or criteria established by a state agency to ensure that their business needs and goals are effectively met and the state obtained the most value.
    Blueprint - The dynamic content of a given architecture that is captured utilizing standardized, structured processes and templates.
    Budget Change Proposal (BCP) - A proposal to change the spending authority for project activities authorized by the DOF. A BCP is also required for any current year changes in spending authority. The DOF annually issues a Budget Letter with specific instructions for preparing BCPs. The term BCP can be used in a generic sense to refer to both the fall and spring process documents, or to specifically refer to the fall process document (the spring process document is a spring finance letter).
    (OSI) Budget Language Definitions - The (OSI) Budget Language Definitions document provides budgetary terms which are used frequently throughout the Governor’s Budget, the Governor’s Budget Summary, and the annual Budget Bill. Definitions are provided for terminology that is common to all publications.
    Business Case - Structured proposal that justifies a project for decision-makers. Includes an analysis of business process performance and requirements, assumptions, and issues. Also presents the risk analysis by explaining strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
    Business Continuity Plan - The Business Continuity Plan describes what actions and decisions are needed to ensure critical business operations will continue in the event of a disaster or facility problem. The plan should discuss who has the authority to initiate the activities described in the plan, which operations should be continued, and how to re-establish the operations.
    Business Driver - Business drivers are external and internal forces that create a need for business action or "drive" the organization's business, as well as, the strategies that an organization defines in response to these forces.
    Business Goals - The underlying basis for which a project is undertaken.
    Business Process Model - Decomposition and graphical depiction a specific business process or functional area within an organization. The model shows how each functional area breaks down into processes; each process breaks down into sub processes; and each sub process breaks down into activities.
    Business Trend - A business trend is a shift or change in the fundamental business dynamics within an industry. Business trends tend to drive enterprise-wide strategic decisions and are the result of shifts in attitudes, values, technologies and the economic landscape.
    Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL) - provides a language for the formal specification of business processes and business interaction protocols. By doing so, it extends the Web Services interaction model and enables it to support business transactions. BPEL defines an interoperable integration model that should facilitate the expansion of automated process integration in both the intra-corporate and the business-to-business spaces.
    Business Process Improvement/Initiative (BPI) - A systematic, disciplined approach to change. Critically examines, evaluates, and redesigns mission critical processes so as to achieve dramatic performance improvement in areas critical to sub processes; and each sub process breaks down into activities.
    Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) - The purpose of Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) is to help prepare the users for the new or modified automated system that is being developed. The focus is on understanding and documenting current processes and business needs, and identifying where automation ay help. Then the focus shifts to assisting users to modify or use new processes that incorporate the use of the automated system functionality. Training and measuring process effectiveness are important parts of the BPR effort.

    The goals of BPR are to streamline existing processes, to ensure the correct processes are being automated (i.e. some processes do not need to be automated), and to ensure automation is addressing the process need. This does not mean the elimination of all manual processes. Some new processes may be a combination of manual and automated activities. In many cases, an organizational change or re-design may be part of the effort or it may be a simultaneous effort.
    Business Reference Model - is a function-driven framework for describing the business operations of the California State Government independent of the agencies that perform them.
    Business Services - Process, Activities, and Tasks executed to deliver.
    Business System - A collection of processes (automated or manual) that are provided that fulfill some or all of the requirements to of a Line of Business
  • C
    Cannery Campus - An OTECH site and operations division.
    Capability Maturity Model (CMM) - The Capability Maturity Model describes the principles and practices underlying software process maturity. It is intended to help software organizations improve the maturity of their software processes in terms of an evolutionary path from ad hoc, chaotic processes to mature, disciplined software processes. The focus is on identifying key process areas and the exemplary practices that may comprise a disciplined software process.
    Change Control - The tracking and management of proposed changes to an item's format, content, version and/or configuration. Change control applies to many different project office functions (e.g. requirements management, project management, quality management, contract management, etc.) as well as contractor delivered products. OSI considers change control as an element of configuration management. Contrast this definition with Change Leadership and Change Management.
    Change Control Board (CCB) - A Change Control Board is used to control identified system changes, review impacts, and grant approvals as part of the change management function. The CCB is typically comprised of members from the project management, system architecture, quality assurance, systems engineering, as well as members from the program/business areas and contractors, if needed.
    Change Control Process - This process describes how project baselines will be managed and maintained. Typically, projects will utilize a change/configuration control board (CCB) to identify and track configuration items and their disposition. This process is included or referenced in the Configuration Management Plan.
    Change Leadership - The activities performed to manage organizational changes including organization structure, roles and responsibilities, type of work performed, and management reporting. Focuses more on soft-skills to address personnel concerns and to change organizational culture and perceptions. Contrast this definition with Change Control and Change Management.
    Change Leadership Plan - The Change Leadership Plan describes how people are affected by technology innovation resulting from the system acquisition. This plan addresses how the people/culture will be affected and what steps will be taken to prepare them for the changes, which may include a change in job duties, new job skills, a new management structure, and/or a new method of doing business.
    Change Management - There are different interpretations of this term. Interpretations include: Configuration Management, Change Control, or Change Leadership. OSI prefers not to use this term.
    Charter - A formal document providing authority to a project manager to conduct a project within scope, quality, time, cost, and resource constraints as laid down in the document.
    Code Review - An iterative process whereby someone other than the developer examines source code and provides feedback regarding development aspects, such as bad constructs, poor structure, ambiguity, commenting, poor algorithms, and adherence to standards and specifications.
    Conflict Resolution - Process if seeking a solution to a problem. Generally, five methods are available: (1) problem solving or confrontation, where two parties work together towards a solution of the problem, (2) compromising, where both sides agree such that each wins or loses on certain significant issues, (3) forcing, where the project manager uses his or her power to direct the solution, resulting in a type of win-lose agreement where one side gets its way and the other does not, (4) smoothing, where the major points of agreement are given the most attention and differences between the two sides are not highlighted and are thus not resolved, and (5) withdrawing, where one or both sides withdraw from conflict.
    Column - set of data values, one for each row of the table. The columns provide the structure according to which the rows are composed. Column is also called a field.
    Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) - Commercial off-the-shelf Software is a commercially available application sold to the general public by a vendor through public catalogue listings, not intended to be customized or enhanced. COTS can be directly integrated into custom built software systems without the components themselves being customized or enhanced. COTS-components provide the functionality that is required in the custom software system either entirely or partially.
    Communication Plan - Document that describes the methods for gathering, distributing, and storing various types of information; provides a production schedule showing when each type of information will be produced; details methods for accessing information between scheduled communications; and incorporates procedures for updating and refining the communication plan. Generally, a part of the overall project plan.
    Completed Activity - Activity with an actual finish date and no remaining duration.
    Compliance - 1) Adhering to any standards, procedures, or processes established as necessary for operational effectiveness. (2) Meeting all technical, contractual, and price/cost requirements of a request for proposal.
    Component - a self-contained business process or service with predetermined functionality that may be exposed through a business or technology interface.
    Component Based Architecture (CBA) - Technology architecture comprised of run-time services and control structures together with an application infrastructure. The CBA consists of the component model and the architecture services that are built around the model. Solutions based on a CBA are more dynamic, flexible, and maintainable than traditional monolithic solutions (e.g., N-tiered, Service Oriented).
    Concept of Operations (ConOps) - A document used to describe the proposed system and method of doing business from the user’s perspective. The document is often prepared as part of the requirements gathering and definition phase. This document is optional, but suggested for complex systems where there is no legacy system or where the users have primarily relied on manual processes. Refer to IEEE STD 1362.
    Configuration Audit - A Configuration Audit verifies that the development and build of a configuration item has conforms to the performance and functional specifications stated in the technical documentation.
    Configuration Identification - Configuration Identification identifies configuration items for a system and records their functional and physical characteristics in the technical documentation.
    Configuration Item (CI) - A configuration item can be any of the following components: hardware, software, system documentation, project office documentation, contracts, system interfaces, project office tools, contractor deliverables, networks, websites, desktop components, and databases. Configuration items can also include county components depending on how the contract is established. See also Configuration Management.
    Configuration Item Change Request (CICR) - A Configuration Item Change Request is a formal request to change to any component under configuration control.
    Configuration Management (CM) - Configuration Management applies technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a CI, to control changes to those characteristics, record and report change processing and implementation status, and verify the compliance of the CI with specified requirements.
    Configuration Management Plan - The configuration management plan defines how the project office will maintain control of project baselines and items that must be tracked and managed in a formal and systematic fashion. Configuration items vary from project to project and depend on the level of control the project must maintain on items in support of the system acquisition. The project office Configuration Management Plan generally focuses on documents and project office infrastructure. The prime contractor will also have a Configuration Management Plan that describes how the developed system and software components will be controlled.
    Configuration Status Accounting - Configuration Status Accounting records and reports the information needed to effectively manage a Configuration Item including a list of the approved configuration identification, the status of proposed changes to the configuration item, and the implementation status of the approved changes.
    Conflict of Interest - All project staff and contractors must evaluate their potential for conflict of interest when working on a project. Conflict of interest occurs when project decisions affect the financial interests of the employee, their family or their company (if appropriate). In addition, staff members must be aware that they must keep sensitive procurement information confidential. This is a particularly complex issue with severe legal ramification for infractions. For more information consult with OSI Administrative Operations Branch.
    Contract - A contract is a written binding agreement between two or more parties that is enforceable by law.
    Constraint - (1) Restriction that affects the scope of the project, usually with regard to availability, assignment, or use of project cost, schedule, or resources. (2) Any factors that affects when or how an activity can be scheduled. (3) Any factor that limits the project team's options and can lead to pressure and resulting frustrations among team members.
    Constraints - a way of implementing business rules in the database. For instance, a constraint can restrict an integer attribute to values between 1 and 10.
    Consultant - A consultant is a company or individual under contract to provide services or products to the project.
    Contingency - 1) Provision for any project risk element within the project scope; particularly important when comparison of estimates and actual data suggests that certain risk events are likely to occur. If an allowance for escalation is included in the contingency, such should be a separate item, calculated to fit expected price level escalation conditions for project. (2) Possible future action that may stem from presently known causes, the cost outcome of which cannot be determined accurately.
    Contract Administration - Management of the relationship with the contractor from contract award to closeout, focused specifically on ensuring that the contractor delivers a product or service in conformance with the contract's requirements.
    Consensus - General accord. Each participant strongly agrees with the decision, or can live with it. Consensus is not reached if a participant strongly disagrees with the decision or can not live with it.
    Core Process - A key or vital business process. These processes are critical to a business organization's success and survival.
    Corrective Action - Changes made to bring expected future performance of the project in line with the project plan.
    Cost - (1) Cash value of project activity; value associated with materials and resources expended to accomplish project objectives. (2) Sum or equivalent that is expended, paid, or charged for something.
    Cost Overrun - Amount by which actual project cost exceed estimated costs.
    Criteria - 1) A fact or standard by which judgments, decisions or actions are taken. (2) Objectives, guidelines, procedures, and standards to be used for project development, design, or implementation.
    Critical Path - 1) a project network diagram, the series of activities that determine the earliest completion of the project. Will change as activities are completed ahead of a behind schedule. Although normally calculated for the entire project, may also be determined for a milestone or subproject. Often defined as those activities with float less than or equal to specified value, often zero. 2) The series of tasks that must finish on time for the entire project to finish on schedule. A delay in any task on the critical path will result in a delay in the project.
    County/Local Office Fiscal Processes - If the project office will be reimbursing or paying for county/local office implementation costs, a process must be defined for estimating, budgeting, approving, and tracking county/local office expenditures. The processes are written from the point of view of the project and include expectations for the counties/local offices and, if appropriate, the prime contractor.
    County/Local Office Implementation Status Report Template - The purpose of the Implementation Status Report is to give project management staff a snapshot view of the county/local office status, as well as the details for tasks in caution or critical mode. Typically, the report is delivered biweekly and contains a synopsis of workgroup status, issues, risks, changes to work plans, and progress towards key implementation milestone activities. The Implementation Team assists with the development of the report format, but content updates are the responsibility of the prime contractor and county/local office staff.
    County/Local Office Implementation Work Plan Template - The work plan template describes the activities to be completed by the county/local office in order to prepare for implementation. The template is provided for the counties/local offices to complete/customize. The project office or contractor implementation team works with the county/local office to customize and provide status on activities within the work plan.
    County/Local Office Readiness Guide - The County Readiness Guide introduces the scope, complexities of the changes required during implementation and provides a basic understanding of the activities and decisions required of the county/local office. The readiness guide is meant to introduce the approach to implementation along with the activities and responsibilities. It is presented as an informational tool to assist in understanding the scope of the effort and the impacts and implications of the effort for the county/local office.
    Current Process Analysis Report - This document describes the users current processes and method of doing business. It is used to identify impacts and opportunities for change which may be included in the new system. Usually created as part of a BPR effort.
    Customer Interface - The services, system, or mechanisms that a business system uses to interface with the customers of a business system.
    Customers - The end consumer of a business systems services. Typically this is the consumers of the information that a business system provides.
  • D
    Database - A Database is a collection of interrelated data stored together in one or more computerized files.
    Data Conversion Plan - This document describes the approach to converting legacy data to a new format/database. The plan describes the tool(s) to be used, the types of automated and manual processes to be used, how data anomalies and errors are handled, and how converted data will be validated to ensure it is correct prior to its use in the new production system. This plan may be either a project office or contractor responsibility.
    Data Item Description (DID) - A Data Item Description describes the specific format, content and level of detail for a contractor deliverable. This document is generally included or referenced in the RFP and is not negotiable.
    Data Manipulation Language (DML) - A family of computer languages that are used by computer programs or database users to retrieve, insert, delete and update data in a database.
    Data Reference Model - is a framework to enable information sharing and reuse via the standard description and discovery of common data and the promotion of uniform data management practices.
    Data Type - Identifies the kind of information that a column in a database table represents. The data types (e.g. string, integer, and date) are physical representations and are dependent on the actual DBMS.
    Database Definition Language (DDL) - This is the syntax that a given DBMS understands and is used to manipulate the structure of the database, from initial database creation to additions, modifications and deletions of all database objects (tables, columns, indexes, etc.) to the eventual removal of the database. Another term used for DDL is ''schema''.
    Database Management System (DBMS) - A DBMS contains and controls information in some structured form so that it can be accessed in an efficient manner.
    Decomposition - Subdivision of the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components until the deliverables are defined in sufficient detail to support future project activities (planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing).
    Defect - Nonconformance of characteristics with specified requirements, or a deficiency in something necessary for an item's intended, proper use.
    Deliverable - A work product produced by a contractor or consultant in accordance with the terms of their contract. It is measureable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that must be produced to complete a project or part of a project.
    Deliverable Expectation Document (DED) - A DED presents peritinent information (e.g., deliverable description, applicable industry standards SOW reference, acceptance criteria and schedule) specifying the expectations of a deliverable. The DED is reviewed and approved by a state manager to ensure agreed-upon expectations are clearly defined before the deliverable is actually developed. The DED is not attached to any present payment.
    Deliverable Management - Administrative tracking of all contractual deliverables generated by a contractor or consultant. A subset of document management that includes logging receipt of a deliverable, reviewing the deliverable against its administrative requirements, approving and disapproving the deliverable submittal, and handling deficiencies with the deliverable. Deliverable management does not include a qualitative evaluation of the deliverable quality (see Quality Management). Deliverable Management is similar to Document Management, and is a subset of Configuration Management, but is usually associated with the Contract Management Plan.
    Dependency - Logical relationship between and among tasks of project's WBS, which can be graphically depicted on a network diagram.
    Dependent Tasks - Tasks that are related such that the beginning or end of one task is contingent on the beginning or end of another.
    Design Review - Formal, documented, comprehensive, and systematic examination of a design to evaluate is capability to meet specified requirements, identify problems, and propose solutions.
    Detailed Design - Output of system design; a technical or engineering description of a system that provides individual views of the system components; details on the physical layout of the system; and information on the system's individual applications, subsystems, and hardware components.
    DGS Alternative Procurement Request Form - A letter written by the project to DGS requesting permission to conduct an alternative procurement. The request is submitted to DGS with the project’s ITPP. Most of OSI’s projects are considered alternative procurements because the exact nature of the solution and products to be used are not known when the procurement is conducted. Refer to SAM Section 5215.
    Direct Project Costs - Costs directly attributable to a project, including all personnel, goods, or services and their associated costs, but not including indirect project costs, such as overhead and general office costs incurred in support of the project.
    Documentation - Collection of reports, information, records, references, and other project data for distribution and archival purposes.
    Document Control - System to control and execute project documentation in a uniform and orderly fashion.
  • E
    End user - Person or group for whom the project's product or service is developed.
    Enhancement - Change or group of changes to the scope of an existing project that provides additional functionality, features, or capabilities.
    Enterprise - (1) Company or organization. (2) Subpart of a company or organization. (3) Business of a customer.
    Enterprise Architecture - defines an enterprise-wide, integrated set of components that incorporates strategic business thinking, information assets, and the technical infrastructure of an enterprise to promote information sharing across agency and organizational boundaries. The Enterprise Architecture is supported by Architecture Governance and the allied architectures of, Business, Information, Technology and Solution Architectures.
    Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) - An ESB is software architecture for middleware that provides fundamental services for more complex architectures. For example, an ESB incorporates key features to support a service-oriented architecture (SOA). In a general sense, an ESB can be thought of as a mechanism that manages access to applications and services (both modern and legacy versions) to present a single, simple, and consistent interface.
    Entity - An abstraction for a person, place, object, event, or concept described (or characterized) by common Attributes. For example, “Person” and “Agency” are Entities.
    Exit Criteria - The conditions that must be satisfied before the process element is considered complete.
    Executive Summary - A non-technical summary statement designed to provide a quick overview of the full-length report on which it is based.
    Expected Results - The desired outcome of a scenario defined in a test plan.
    External Dependency - Dependency that involves a relationship between project and non-project activities.
  • F
    Feasibility Study Report (FSR) - The state approval document required for initial project approval that contains analyses of options, cost estimates and other information. A customized Implementation Advance Planning Document (IAPD) is accepted in lieu of an FSR, for those projects receiving federal funding. The format of the FSR is dictated by DOF.
    Feedback - Information derived from observation of project activities, which is used to analyze the status of the job and take corrective action if necessary.
    Federal Reference Model - A series of interrelated taxonomies that comprise the Federal Enterprise Architecture, and that are designed to facilitate cross-agency analysis and the identification of duplicative investments, gaps, and opportunities for collaboration within and across Federal Agencies.
    Federated Identity Management - Federated identity, or the ‘federation’ of identity, describes the technologies, standards and use-cases which serve to enable the portability of identity information across otherwise autonomous security domains. The ultimate goal of identity federation is to enable users of one domain to securely access data, systems, or business services of another domain seamlessly, and without the need for redundant user administration.
    Fiscal Year - The 12-month period of July 1 to June 30 used for financial planning and reporting purposes.
    Flowchart - Diagram consisting of symbols depicting a physical process, a thought process, or an algorithm. Shows how the various elements of a system or process relate and which can be used for continuous process improvement.
    Foreign key - identifies a column or a set of columns in one (child or referencing) table that refers to a column or set of columns in another (master or referenced) table. The columns in the referencing table must be the primary key in the referenced table.
    Formal Acceptance - Documentation signifying that the customer or sponsor has accepted the product on the project or phase. May be conditional if the acceptance is for a phase of the project.
    Framework - The combination of the templates and structured processes that facilitate the documentation of the architecture in a systematic and disciplined manner.
    Future System Approach - The document describes the "To Be" view of the system, and is produced as part of a BPR study. It is designed to help the users visualize how they will interact with the new/updated system, particularly focusing on business processes and interactions with the system.
    Function - Related activities that are part of a process or a sub process. Most organizations are divided into functional areas; for example, acquisition, accounting, budgets, facilities, and human resources.
    Functional Baseline - The Functional Baseline is the operational requirement the completed system must meet. It is the initial approved technical documentation for a configuration item as opposed to the Allocated or Product Baseline.
    Functional Requirements - Characteristics of the deliverable described in ordinary, non-technical language that is understandable to the customer. Customer plays a major, direct role in their development.
  • G
    Gantt Chart - A Gantt Chart is a horizontal bar chart that graphically displays time relationships. In effect, it is a "scale" model of time because the bars are different lengths depending upon the amount of time they represent. It is named after Henry Laurence Gantt, the American engineer and social scientist who first developed it. Gantt charts have been around since the early 1900s and are frequently used in business to plan and manage large projects.
    Gap Analysis - (1) Examination of the difference between the current state and the desired or optimum state. (2) Technique to help visualize the budget options available in project portfolios. Uses exploratory and normative forecasting and compares the curves associated with the total budget requirements of existing projects with that of the total anticipated budget for all projects, even those that are not under way. An anticipated gap can be determined and analyzed.
    Go/No-Go Decisions - Critical decisions which occur at key project milestones to review project and/or contractor progress. Each Go/No-Go Decision has key criteria which must be met in order for the project/contractor to progress to the next phase or stage. The Go/No-Go Decision is a formal decision made by the project manager, sponsor and appropriate executives or stakeholders. If the decision is 'No-Go', a list of specific action items are documented which must be completed before the project/contractor may move to the next phase or stage.
    Governance - The use of institutions, statues of authority, and collaboration to allocate resources and coordinate or control activity within a project, program, or portfolio.
    Guideline - Document that recommends methods and procedures to be used to accomplish an objective.
  • H

    High-Level Requirement - A requirement that broadly expresses a system-level response to a stakeholder need. High-level requirements usually need to be analyzed and refined with more detail.

  • I
    Idle Time - Time interval during which the project team, equipment, or both, do not perform useful work.
    Impact Analysis - Qualitative or quantitative assessment of the magnitude of loss or gain to be realized should a specific risk or opportunity event - or series of interdependent events-occur.
    Implementation Advance Planning Document (IAPD) - The IAPD is the approval document used to request initial federal funding for the Development and Implementation, and Maintenance and Operations phases of a project. The IAPD, customized to meet state requirements, is accepted in lieu of the FSR. See also PAPD.
    Implementation Advance Planning Document Update (IAPDU) - The IAPDU is an update to the IAPD submitted to the project’s federal stakeholder annually or as needed to reflect changes in project approach. The IAPD and IAPDU, customized to meet state requirements, are accepted in lieu of the FSR and SPR, respectively. See also PAPD.
    Implementation Guide(s) - This document provides detailed information for the counties/local offices on the upcoming implementation effort. The guide describes the roles and responsibilities for the county/local office, state, and contractor staff. It summarizes the upcoming activities, costs, decisions which must be made and process impacts, and provides the county/local office with appropriate reference and sample materials to use in preparing for implementation. There may be a single guide or separate guides for each of the implementation functional areas.
    Implementation Plan - The implementation plan defines how the system developed by the prime contractor will be implemented in the target environment. In the event of statewide implementations, the plan addresses how the system will be implemented into each site/location.
    Implementation Troubleshooting Guide - This document provides counties/local offices with a tool to assist in troubleshooting problems or issues during the “soft” go live/go live periods and as the system transitions into production. The troubleshooting guide is organized into typical business scenarios based on past business experience or earlier implementation efforts.
    Incremental Approach - Phased approach to project completion whereby certain project functionalities and capabilities are delivered in phases. Allows stakeholders to realize certain benefits earlier than if they were to wait for the total project to be completed.
    Independent Project Oversight Consultant (IPOC) - A consultant used to externally monitor the Project Office and Contractor's management efforts. "Independent" usually entails technical and/or managerial independence. The focus is generally on process and products from a management, process and quality perspective, not the in-depth technical reviews associated with IV&V.
    Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) - An organization that externally monitors both the Project Office and the Contractor's efforts. Independence is used to ensure an unbiased opinion, and can mean financial, managerial and/or technical. An IV&V vendor generally reviews both products and processes, with a particular emphasis on the technical aspects of the products. See also Independent Project Oversight Consultant (IPOC).
    Index - An index is a data structure associated with a table that is logically ordered by the values of a key. It improves database performance and access speed. You normally create indexes for columns that you access regularly, and where response time is important. Indexes are most effective when they are used on columns that contain mostly unique values.
    Indirect Cost - (1) Cost not directly identified with one final cost objective. May be identified with two or more final or one or more intermediate cost objectives. (2) Cost allocated to the project by the performing organization as a cost of doing business. Also called overhead cost or burden.
    Information Flow - The path and process of information takes from the originating source, to a consumer(s) of the data.
    Infrastructure / Facilities Plan - This document addresses the specific strategy to building, furnishing and/or moving into a new location or office space for the project office. The plan must discuss the preparation and installation needs including electrical, telecommunications, security, furniture, and computing equipment. This document is produced as needed.
    Inter Agency Agreement (IAA) - A formal agreement between state organizations. OSI and the sponsor establish an IAA that describes the agreement regarding management of the OSI projects in support of the sponsor’s programs. The IAA includes the costs for which the sponsor will reimburse OSI and thus must match the numbers in the final State Budget for each fiscal year. Refer to State Contract Manual (on the Navigation Menu to the left, select the Links & Downloads option and go to the State page to find a direct link to the manual).
    Interface Requirements Document (IRD) - Describes the requirements for the existing or known interfaces for the system. This document is developed by the project and included or referenced in the RFP. The prime contractor further refines the interface requirements and documents specific requirements in their Software Requirements Specification, Interface Requirement Specification and resulting design documents.
    ISO 9000 - Set of documented standards to help organizations ensure that their quality systems meet certain minimal levels of consistent performance.
    Issue Management - Structured, documented, and formal processes or set of procedures used by an organization or a project to identify, categorize, and resolve issues.
    Issue - A statement of concern or need that (1) is known ahead of time or are in the project workplan, but whose resolution is in question or lacking agreement among stakeholders; (2) is highly visible or involve external stakeholders such as requests from control agencies; (3) have critical deadlines or timeframes which cannot be missed; (4) Result in an important decision or resolution whose rationale and activities must be captured for historical purposes; or (5) is item that may impede project progress. An issue is a situation which has occurred or will definitely occur, as opposed to a risk which is a potential event.
  • J

    JAD (Joint Application Development) - A structured, facilitated process for gathering and negotiating requirements.

  • K
    Keys - identify primary and foreign keys and help ensures uniqueness and referential integrity.
    Key Stakeholder - A key stakeholder is a person who participates in the decision to approve or disapprove requirements on the behalf of other stakeholders.
    Kickoff Meeting - Meeting held to acquaint stakeholders with the project and each other; presumes the presence of the customer and serves as an initial review of the project scope and activities. The Kickoff meeting is usually conducted after contract award or a decision to initiate a project.
    Knowledge Transfer - Flow of knowledge, skills, information, and competencies from one person to another. Can happen through any number of methods including coaching, mentoring, training courses and on-the-job experience.
  • L
    Lead Time - The time required to wait for a product, service, material, or resources, after ordering or making a request for such things.
    Line of Business - A set of one or more highly related products which service a particular customer transaction or business need.
  • M
    Maintenance - The modification of a software product, after delivery, to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes, or to adapt the product to a changed environment.
    M&O Transition Plan - The M&O Transition Plan addresses how the project office will manage the project once the system is implemented in the production environment. The plan focuses not only on the transition implications when moving into the M&O life cycle, but also on the transition of M&O responsibilities between the prime contractor and the M&O contractor.
    Maintenance and Operations (M&O) Plan - The M&O Plan summarizes the project’s approach to M&O. The plan is similar to the Master Project Plan, but with an emphasis on sustained operations instead of development and implementation. The M&O Plan places a stronger emphasis on the strategic direction of the project/system, the approach to system releases, upgrades and maintenance, and ongoing operations and customer support.
    Master Schedule - Schedule consisting of key events or milestones (generally, critical accomplishments planned at time intervals throughout the project) and used to monitor overall project performance. May be either a network or bar chart and usually contains minimal detail at a highly summarized level.
    Mediation - Process of brining parties engaged in a dispute or disagreement together to settle their differences through a meeting with disinterested party, the mediator. Unlike binding arbitration, the mediator has no authority to force a settlement.
    Mechanism - Technology or other utility that is used by a business system that helps automate a business process, activity, or task.
    Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) - A formal agreement with another organization that defines the roles and responsibilities and expectations of each party. Usually used to establish an agreement with counties/local offices, particularly when the project will be reimbursing the county/local office for implementation expenses. Refer to the State Contracting Manual.
    Metrics Process - The Metrics Process describes how measurements will be identified, collected, and analyzed to ensure quality goals (including management and system goals) are being accomplished. The Metrics Process is usually included or referenced in the Quality Management Plan.
    Milestone - (1) Event with a zero duration and requiring no resources. Used to measure the progress of a project signifies completion or start of a major deliverable or other significant metric such as cost incurred, hours used, payment made, and so on. (2) Identifiable point in a project or set of activities that represents a reporting requirement or completion of a large or important set of activities.
    Milestone Schedule - Schedule consisting of key events or milestones (generally, critical accomplishments planned at time intervals throughout the project) and used to monitor overall project performance. May be either a network or bar chart and usually contains minimal detail at a highly summarized level.
    Mission - Specific purpose that all or part of the organization is dedicated to achieving.
    Mission Statement - Description prepared and endorsed by members of the organization that answers these questions: What do we do? For whom do we do it? How do we go about it? Used as a guide for making decisions in projects.
    Mitigation - (1) Carefully organized steps taken to reduce or eliminate the probability of a risk's occurring or the impact of a risk on a project. (2) Actions taken to eliminate or reduce risk by reducing the probability and or impact of occurrence.
    Mitigation Strategy - Carefully organized steps taken to reduce or eliminate the probability of a risk's occurring or the impact of a risk on a project.
    Modifiable off-the-shelf Software (MOTS) - Modifiable or Modified off-the-shelf Software is a COTS product whose source code can be modified or customized, by the purchaser or vendor for specific applications to meet customer requirements.
    Modification - Change to a project's scope or the terms of a contract; usually written. Examples are changes orders, notices of termination, supplemental agreements, and exercises of contract options.
    Model - The graphical representation or simulation of a process, relationship or information, along with a narrative that supports the diagram(s).
    Module - a self-contained software component of a business system, which has a well-defined interface to the other software components; something is modular if it includes or uses modules which can be interchanged as units without disassembly of the module. Design, manufacture, repair, etc. of the modules may be complex, but this is not relevant; once the module exists, it can easily be connected to or disconnected from the system.
  • N

    Nonconformance - Deficiency in characteristics, documentation, or procedures that makes the quality of material, service, or product unacceptable or indeterminate.

  • O
    Objective - A high level statement of the goal(s) of the project.
    Operational Support Documentation Outline - This document provides guidance in the uniform creation of the operational support documentation. The purpose of the operations support document is to provide instructions to the system operators on the procedures for operating, controlling, troubleshooting, and maintaining the system once implemented in production.
    Optional Requirements - Elements that would enhance the system being modified, but if left out, success of the request(s) would still be attained.
    Organization Chart - Graphic display of reporting relationship that provide a general framework of the organization.
    Organizational Change Management - Organizational Change Management (OCM) is a structured approach to shifting/transitioning an organization from the current state to a desired future state. OCM is the application of a set of tools, processes, skills, and principles for managing the people side of change to achieve the desired organizational change. It is a process aimed at empowering employees to accept and embrace changes in their business environment.
    OSI Orientation - OSI Orientations are project team orientations designed to familiarize new project office staff with the OSI organization in general. OSI Orientations are not project-specific.
    OSI Training Plan - The OSI Training Plan defines the division-level training that is mandated on all projects from the OSI organization. Training requirements are general in content and emphasizes topics that have long-term relevance to all projects in OSI (e.g. OSI orientation, Using the BP website, Understanding the OSI life cycle etc).
    Outcome - Result--expected and unexpected--of use or application of an organization's output.
    Outsourcing - Process of awarding a contract or otherwise entering into an agreement with a third party, usually a supplier, to perform services that are currently being performed by an organization's employees. Organizations "outsource" elements of their operations for one or both of the following reasons: (1) The service can be performed cheaper, faster, or better by a third party. (2) The service (for example, janitorial services) is not a core business functions contributing to the revenue growth and technical expertise of the organization. Accordingly, management does not want to focus time and attention on it.
  • P
    Peer Review - Review of a project or phase of a project by individuals with equivalent knowledge and background who are not currently members of the project team and have not participated in the development of the project.
    Performance Gap - The gap or difference between what customers and stakeholders expect and what each process and related sub process produces. Defined in terms of quality, quantity, time, and costs related to products and services performed.
    Performance Measures - Performance measures describe how success in achieving the agency goals will be measured and tracked. Performance measure targets provide the quantifiable answer to the question, "How will we know when we've been successful in achieving our goal?" Analyzing the gaps between current performance levels and performance targets helps organizations identify priority areas needing improvement and develop strategies that will close the gap.
    Performance Reference Model (PRM) - Is a framework that establishes a common language in which Enterprise Architects (EAs) can describe the outputs and measures used to achieve program and business objectives.
    Performance Review Presentations - Performance reviews are internal reviews of project office (not contractor) performance and status. These reviews are formal and in-person with the OSI Assistant Director and the project team. These reviews are conducted quarterly and typically do not involve the sponsor or contractor.
    Phases - Distinct stages of a development project or of a version within a project; the high-level divisions of a project.
    Planning Advance Planning Document (PAPD) - A PAPD is an approval document used to request federal approval and funding for the Initiation, Planning and Procurement phases of a project. There are no approval documents comparable to a PAPD in the state process. Upon selection of a vendor and agreement on project costs, the project submits an Implementation Advanced Planning Document (IAPD).
    Planning Advanced Planning Document Update (PAPDU) - A PAPDU is an updated to the PAPD submitted to the project’s federal stakeholder annually or as needed during the planning phase to report project progress and changes. Upon selection of a vendor and agreement on project costs, the project submits an IAPD.
    Platform - The hardware and systems software on which applications software is developed or installed and operated.
    Policy Impact Analysis - If performed as part of a BPR effort, this document describes any impacts to the existing policies, particularly if there are changes needed. This document should also highlight areas where the automated system will streamline or assist with implementing policy, and areas where changes in implementing the policy will occur (for instance, changing a team leads manual approval to an automated approval). A Policy Impact Analysis may also be completed as part of the analysis of proposed legislation or policy changes, in which case it describes the anticipated effect of the legislation or policy on the new/existing system.
    Portfolio - A collection of components (i.e. projects, programs, portfolios, and other work such as maintenance and related ongoing operations) that are grouped together to facilitate the effective management of that work in order to meet strategic business objectives. The projects or programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related.
    Position Descriptions (PD)- A document describing the tasks, knowledge, skills and abilities required for a given staff position. PDs are specific to a position on a project and should be consistent with the approved position classification.
    Primary key - Column or combination of columns whose values uniquely identify a row in a table. The primary key may have a specific meaning in the business domain or may be a counter value. Primary keys do not allow null values.
    Prime Contractor - The contractor who has primary responsibility for developing or integrating the given system, or the primary contractor performing work on the system.
    Process - Related business activities performed to produce an end product or provide a business service. A process has a specific beginning and an end point marked by the delivery or a product of output.
    Process Gap Analysis - This document describes the differences between the current method of doing business and the desired or proposed way of doing business. Generally produced as part of a BPR study, it focuses on identifying what needs to be done to achieve the desired way of doing business.
    Process Implementation Plan - A document used to implement large-scale process changes, such as part of a BPR process. The plan describes the approach to implementing, training, monitoring and correcting the new/modified processes in the actual county/local office location(s). For smaller scale process changes, this information may be included in the Implementation Plan.
    Process Improvement Plan - The Process Improvement Plan describes how the project will tailor and administer the OSI mandates for continuous process improvement to project-specific conditions. The OSI Enterprise Project Management Office coordinates process improvement initiatives at the OSI-level. The Process Improvement Program is typically described as a section within the Quality Management Plan.
    Product - A Product is all project produced hardware, software, and documentation.
    Product Baseline - The Product Baseline is the software code, hardware, and other physical items that make up the system. It is the initial approved technical documentation that defines a configuration item during the production, maintenance, and operation as opposed to the Allocated or Functional Baseline.
    Product Description - The product description documents the characteristics of the product or service that the project is to create.
    Procedures - (1) Step-by-step instructions on ways to perform a given task or activity; may be accompanied by a statement of purpose and policy for a task, examples of the results of the task, and so forth. (2) Prescribed method to perform specified work.
    Program - A program is comprised of multiple related projects that are initiated during the program’s life cycle and are managed in a coordinated fashion.
    Project - A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. It is an organized effort representing a level of commitment and ability to deliver a defined product or service to the customer within an agreed cost and/or time constraint.
    Project Charter - Document issued by senior management that gives the project manager authority to apply organizational resources to project activities and formally recognizes the existence of a project.
    Project Closeout - Process to provide for project acceptance by the project s ponsor, completion of various project records, final revision and issue of documentation to reflect the "as-built" condition, and retention of essential project documentation.
    Project Environment - Written statements relative to the project, which help to clarify scope, objectives and other relevant factors that cannot be known at a given point in time.
    Project Justification - Use of the business need or purpose that the project was undertaken to address to provide the basis for evaluating future investment trade-offs.
    Project Management (PM) - The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
    Project Management Body Of Knowledge (PMBOK) - Totality of knowledge within the project management profession. As in other professions, such as law, medicine, and accounting, the body of knowledge rests with the practitioners and academics involved in its application and advancement. The PMBOK includes practices that have been widely applied and proven, as well as innovative and advanced practices with more limited use and application.
    Project Management Institute (PMI), Inc. - International, non-profit professional organization dedicated to advancing the state-of-the-art in the management of projects. The PMI is the largest organization, nationally and internationally, providing the ethical and professional standards applicable to practitioners of project management.
    Project Management Life Cycle - The sequential major time periods through which any project passes, namely: • Initiating • Planning • Executing • Monitoring & Controlling • Closing Each period may be identified as a phase and further broken down into stages.
    Project Management Office (PMO) - An organization that oversees and/or mentors groups of projects. Often the PMO is responsible for establishing policies and standards for the projects/organization, reviewing and consolidating project reports for external stakeholders, and monitoring project performance against the organization's standards. There is usually a single PMO per state department or agency.
    Project Management Professional (PMP) - Professional certification awarded by the Project Management Institute to individuals who have met the established minimum requirements in knowledge, education, experience, and service in the discipline of project management.
    Project Manager (PM) - The Project Manager is the person(s) assigned by the OSI Assistant Director to manage a designated OSI project. Project Managers include the primary manager (sometimes referred to as the Project Director) and the Assistant Project Managers.
    Project Master Schedule - The high-level schedule which summarizes all the efforts required to implement the project. It includes (generally by reference) the milestones and key activities of the prime contractor and any consultants. It may also include milestones and key activities from the counties/local offices. The master schedule focuses on dependencies and critical path.
    Project Office (PO) - The group responsible for performing a project, including administrative, fiscal, contract, technical and quality assurance staff. The project office (or just project) may oversee a contractor who is performing the primary activities (planning, development, etc.), or the project itself may be performing all project activities.
    Project Objectives - (1) Identified, expected results and benefits involved in successfully completing the project. (2) Quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered successful. (3) Project scope expressed in terms of output, required resources, and schedule.
    Project Outcomes - A result or consequence of the project activity.
    Project Requirements - A statement or model identifying a capability, physical characteristic, or quality factor that bounds a need for which a solution will be pursued.
    Project Scope - (1) All the work required to deliver a project's product or service with the specified features and functions. (2) The work that must be done in order to deliver a product with the specified features and functions.
    Project Sponsor - Person in an organization whose support and approval is required for a project to start and continue.
    Project Toolset Change Control Process - The change control process utilized by the organization to allow for the customization of the project office suite of tools to meet the specific needs of the project. Unlike the "project" change control process, this process is limited to the OSI standard set of project office tools. Some tools and changes must be coordinated at the division level while other changes may be coordinated at the project level, depending on the nature of the change and whether the tool is considered an OSI standard tool.
    Project Training Plan - The Project Training Plan includes training that is unique to the specific needs of the project (e.g. welfare training, unemployment insurance training, etc.) and is determined as the special project need arises. Also refer to the OSI Training Plan for general training requirements for all projects in OSI.
    Project Work Plans - The detailed list of activities required to complete specific tasks on the master schedule. The activities list focuses on specific measurable tasks, task assignments, and due dates. Work plan data is rolled-up to specific tasks of the master schedule.
    Project-Specific Orientation / Training - Project-Specific Orientation/Training is provided to new project office staff for the purpose of familiarizing them with project-specific information.
    Project Stakeholder - Individual or organization who is actively involved in the project or whose interests may be affected, either positively or negatively, as a result of project execution or successful project completion. Also, sometimes called party-at-interest.
    Proposal Evaluation Report - The report describing the results of the proposal evaluation effort, including the identification of the selected bidder. The report summarizes the criteria used, the bidders who responded, the specific scores for each bidder and any preference criteria applied. The DGS Analyst assigned to the procurement coordinates the development of this report, which is forwarded to DGS management for approval.
    Prototype - Small or full-scale, and usually functioning, form of a newly developed product, which is used to evaluate the product design.
  • Q
    Quality Assurance (QA): - 1) Process of regularly evaluating overall project performance to provide confidence that the project will satisfy relevant quality standards. (2) Organizational unit responsible for quality assurance efforts.
    Quality Management - (1) Planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, directing, and controlling activities of management with the objective of achieving the required quality. (2) Overall management function involved in determining and implementing quality policy.
    Quality Management Plan - The Quality Management Plan defines how the project will tailor and administer the OSI quality program to project-specific conditions. The Quality Management Plan uses IEEE Std. 730 as its framework and incorporates considerations for process improvement and test and evaluation.
  • R
    Records Retention - Records retention is the process of deciding which documents will remain and which documents will be destroyed after a determined amount of time. The project librarian is typically responsible for managing the life cycle of documents and describes the process in the Document management plan.
    Referential integrity - refers to rules governing data consistency, specifically the interaction between primary keys and foreign keys in different tables. Referential integrity dictates what happens when you update or delete a value in a referenced column in the parent table and when you delete a row containing a referenced column from the parent table.
    Reject - A Reject is an item that has failed to meet approval criteria and/or failed the approval process.
    Relationships - links information together and it is an essential part of database normalization. Most of the time, relationships reflects the one (master table, or referenced table) to many (child table, or referencing table) relationships between the tables. There may be one-to-one, one-to-many, etc, relationship between the parent and child tables.
    Release - A Release is a collection of related configuration items that are each uniquely identified by a version number.
    Request for Information (RFI) - A letter released to the bidding community seeking to identify interested bidders for a particular procurement. The RFI generally describes the background of the business problem and may describe some of the key requirements. The project works with DGS to develop and release the RFI.
    Request for Proposal (RFP) - The RFP used to solicit proposals from the bidding community based on a set of defined requirements. The requirements may be general in nature allowing the bidders to propose a solution and the specific products to be used. The RFP describes the problem requirements, contractual terms, and required format for the proposal responses. The RFP also includes the specific criteria which will be used to evaluate the received proposals. The project works with DGS to ensure the RFP meets all appropriate state guidelines and regulations.
    Requirement - A statement or model identifying a capability, physical characteristic, or quality factor that bounds a need for which a solution will be pursued.
    Requirements Management Plan - This document describes the approach to managing the system requirements. The plan describes how requirements are derived and validated, how requirements changes are analyzed and managed, how requirements traceability is maintained and validated, and how the project works with the contractor to ensure traceability of requirements to the system and system documentation.
    Requirements Traceability - the process of understanding, documenting, approving, and auditing the relationships between a system’s components and functions and the requirements from which the system was developed. Each function and component of a system should be directly traceable to a requirement identified by a user, client, customer, and or stakeholder.
    Requirements Traceability Matrix - A Requirements Traceability Matrix is a tool that will ensure that all requirements have been fulfilled in the end product by associating each requirement with the object via a matrix. Requirements traceability includes tracing to things other than software that satisfy requirements such as capabilities, design elements, manual operations, tests, etc. A traceability matrix is also used to ensure all requirements are met and to locate affected system components when there is a requirements change.
    Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) - The Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) assigns responsibilities for project work components to project roles. Refer to the Staff Management Plan for instructions on using the RAM.
    Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS) - Variation of the organizational breakdown structure used to show which work elements are assigned to individuals.
    Resource Pool - (1) Collection of human and material resources that may be used concurrently on several projects. (2) A set of project resources that is available for assignment to the accomplishment of project tasks.
    Resource Tracking - Resource tracking is monitoring the actual resource expenditures (time and costs) against the plan; identifying variances early; and making appropriate decisions on how to correct the problems before they worsen.
    Responsibility - (1) Obligation of an individual or group to perform assignments effectively. (2) Status of a prospective contractor that determines whether it is eligible for contract award.
    Return On Investment (ROI) - Amount of gain, expressed as a percentage, earned on an organization's total capital; calculated by dividing total capital into earnings before interest, taxes, and dividends.
    RFP Addenda - Addenda are issued after the RFP is released to the bidders to clarify requirements or bidder instructions, or to respond to questions from the bidders. The project must work with DGS to issue any addenda.
    Risk - A potential event that would have a negative impact on the success of the project if the event were to occur. Also an opportunity for benefit to the project, if acted upon.
    Risk (External) - Those risks beyond the control or influence of the project team.
    Risk (Internal) - Those risks the project team can control or influence.
    Risk Acceptability - The exposure to loss (financial or otherwise) that an organization is willing to tolerate from a risk.
    Risk Action Request or Plan - The recommended treatment alternatives and supporting information for one or more risks determined to be above a risk tolerance or threshold.
    Risk Analysis - The evaluation of risks and risk interactions to assess the range of possible project outcomes. The determination of which risk events warrant response. (Is the negative impact of the potential risk event significant enough to warrant inclusion in the risk management process?)
    Risk Consequence - An outcome of an event, hazard, threat or situation.
    Risk Contingency Planning - For those risks where it is unlikely or uncertain that the mitigation will be effective, a contingency plan should be developed. The contingency plan should attempt to minimize the effects of the risk assuming the event does occur.
    Risk Criticality - A designation of the project’s risk, sensitivity or importance based on several factors including size, project manager and team experience, and several project characteristics. The criticality rating is determined using the OCIO IT Project Oversight Framework. OCIO makes the final determination regarding a project’s criticality rating. This rating is used to determine the requirements for risk reporting to external stakeholders.
    Risk Description - Documentation of the risk element to identify the boundaries of the risk.
    Risk Escalation - The process of elevating a risk to appropriate management and stakeholders to ensure sufficient visibility to effect a decision, action or change to the risk’s current profile. There are usually three levels of risk escalation.
    Risk Exposure - A determination of the importance of or potential loss from the risk based upon 1) potential impact of the risk on the project, and 2) the probability of occurrence. Usually categorized as high, medium or low.
    Risk Factor - Risk event, risk probability, or amount at stake.
    Risk Identification - The determination of which risks are likely to affect the project and the documenting of the characteristics of each risk. Risk identification is not a one-time event; it is performed on a regular basis throughout the project’s life cycle. Risk identification must address both internal and external risks.
    Risk Impact - The potential consequences, either positive or negative, should the risk occur. Impacts may affect several areas in both tangible and intangible ways. Usually expressed as High, Medium or Low.
    Risk Likelihood - A qualitative or quantitative expression of the changes that an event will occur.
    Risk Mitigation - The identification of ways to minimize or eliminate project risks. Depending on the severity of the risk and the level of effort for the mitigation strategies, it may be appropriate to initiate several mitigation activities. In other cases, it may not be possible to mitigate a risk.
    Risk Probability - The likelihood of the occurrence of the risk (high, medium, low).
    Risk Profile - The current and historical risk-related information; a compendium or aggregate of all the individual risk profiles in a project.
    Risk Ranking - The relative importance of the risk compared to the list of all project risks. Assists in prioritizing and applying resources for mitigation and contingency actions.
    Risk Severity - A function of the risk exposure compared to the timeframe. The control agencies require risks of a certain severity to be escalated. Ranking of risks is often driven by severity.
    Risk State - The current information relating to an individual risk.
    Risk Timeframe - The period of time within which the risk is expected to occur (short-term, medium-term, long-term).
    Risk Tolerance or Threshold - The criteria against which stakeholders evaluate a risk. Different risk tolerances may be defined for each risk, risk category, or combination of risks. Exceeding a risk threshold is a condition that triggers some action.
    Risk Tracking/Control - A method to insure that all steps of the risk management process are being followed and, as a result, risks are being mitigated effectively. Risk tracking/control involves the oversight and tracking of risk mitigation action plan execution, re-assessment of risks, reporting risk status, and recording risk information changes in the project risk database.
    Roster - A list of people's names and their contact information, often with their assigned roles or tasks.
  • S
    Scalability - The ability to use the same applications and systems on all classes of computers from personal computers to supercomputers and for those applications to continue to function well as it (or its context) is changed.
    Schedule - Time-sequenced plan of activities or tasks used to direct and control project execution. Usually shown as a milestone chart, Gantt or other bar chart, or tabular listing of dates.
    Schedule Baseline - Approved project schedule that serves as the basis for measuring and reporting schedule performance.
    Schedule Control - Management of project schedule changes.
    Schedule Management Plan - This document describes the process and how the defined tool (e.g. MS Project) is used to implement the methodology for establishing, managing, and modifying the Master Project Schedule and Schedule Baseline, and coordinating inputs from the contractor and county/local office work plans and schedules.
    Schedule Performance Index (SPI) - Analysis of activity sequences, activity durations, and resource requirements to prepare the project schedule.
    Schedule Revision - Changes to the scheduled start and finish dates in the approved project schedule.
    Schedule Risk - Risk that jeopardizes completing the project according to the approved schedule
    Schedule Update - Schedule revision to reflect the most current status of the project.
    Schedule Variance (SV) - (1) Difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and its actual completion. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS; an SV of less than zero shows that project activity is behind schedule.
    Scope - The sum of the products and services to be provided as a project.
    Scope Change - Modification to the agreed-upon project scope as defined by the approved WBS.
    Scope Change Control - Process of: (1) influencing the factors that cause scope changes to help ensure that the changes are beneficial, (2) determining that a scope change has occurred, and (3) managing the changes if and when they occur.
    Scope Creep - Gradual progressive increase of the project's scope such that it is not noticed by the project management team or the customer. Occurs when the customer identifies additional, sometimes minor, requirements that, when added together, may collectively result in a significant scope change and cause cost and schedule overruns.
    Scope Definition - Division of the major deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to: (1) improve the accuracy of cost, time, and resource estimates; (2) define a baseline for performance measurement and control; and (3) facilitate clear responsibility assignments.
    Scope Of Work - Description of the totality of work to be accomplished or resources to be supplied under a contract.
    Service Area - is a technical tier that supports the secure construction, exchange, and delivery of business or service components. Each Service Area groups the requirements of component based architectures within the Government into functional areas.
    Service Category - is a sub-tier of the Service Area to classify lower levels of technologies, standards, and specifications in respect to the business or technology function they serve.
    Service Level Agreement (SLA) - This document describes the system performance and service level expectations and requirements for the prime contractor during the Implementation and M&O phases. The SLA includes target performance measures, unacceptable measures and penalties for not meeting required service levels. Usually included or referenced in a SOW and contract.
    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) - An architecture that provides for reuse of existing business services and rapid deployment of new business capabilities based on existing capital assets. Major components include an Enterprise Service Bus, Service Registry, SOA Governance, Federated Identity Management, which interoperate via standard interfaces and protocols.
    Service Reference Model - is a framework classifying Service Components according to the capabilities they provide to business functions.
    Shall - The appearance of the word “shall” Indicates an item or activity that is required.
    Significant Variance - Difference between the plan and actual performance that jeopardizes the project objectives.
    Sister Project - A sister project is an OSI project that is at a point in its life cycle where it can accept the additional workload to support a new project. The objective of Establish a Sister Project is to setup a working relationship with an existing OSI project that will allow the new project to leverage existing location, staff, infrastructure and, if possible, understanding of the customer. A sister project is an OSI project that is at a point in its life cycle where it can accept the additional workload to support a new project. The objective of Establish a Sister Project is to setup a working relationship with an existing OSI project that will allow the new project to leverage existing location, staff, infrastructure and, if possible, understanding of the customer.
    SLA for the Data Center - If a data center will be hosting or providing services for the system, a Service Level Agreement with the Data Center is needed. The SLA describes the system performance and service level expectations and requirements for the data center during the Development, Implementation and M&O phases. The SLA includes target performance measures, unacceptable measures and penalties for not meeting required service levels. Usually referenced as part of a SOW and contract.
    SMART - The five elements for a well-worded objective, namely Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time Bound.
    Software Component - An object, or collection of objects offering a predefined service's or event's, possessing the ability to communicate with or be used by other components. A component is a piece of a solution that can be isolated as a set of functions and features that relates to other components within the same solution.
    Software Engineering Institute (SEI) - U.S. government Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), operated by Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, under contract to the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). SEI's mission is to improve software engineering processes for the DOD. Has become well-known worldwide for its software Capability Maturity Model (CMM), used by software development professionals to improve the processes by which they develop application programs.
    Solution - Determining what should be done to best support your current and future business strategy and needs. The deliverables clearly describe the solutions goals and scope, the capabilities to be implemented, and the risks associated with the program of work that must be carried out.
    Solution Architect - An individual responsible for developing solution architecture frameworks and solution set designs. The Solution Architect’s primary role is to translate what is required to run the business (from the Business and Information Architecture gaps and migration strategies) into actual design specifications and models that can be supported and fulfilled by components within the Technology Architecture.
    Solution Architecture - An architecture within Enterprise Architecture that guides the solution architect in the design of a particulate solution set. For each solution set, Solution Architecture assists in:
    • The identification of business requirements
    • The determination of the design specifications necessary to deliver the business requirements
    • The development of the solution set design. Integrating designs based on details with the Business, Information and Technology blueprints
    Solution Architecture Model - The graphical representation of concepts to portray a desired future state of a business solution, as well as an undesirable current state, which is used for communicating, analyzing, testing, simulating, or exploring options.
    SOW for the Data Center - If a data center will be hosting or providing services for the system, a Statement of Work (SOW) with the data center is needed. The SOW describes the specific tasks, activities and deliverables that the data center will provide to support the system. The SOW is used with some type of contract vehicle to establish binding responsibility for the work to be performed. An SLA is usually included or referenced by the SOW.
    Span Of Control - Number of individuals (direct reports) that a manager or project manager can effectively manage. The number will vary, but generally, a manager should have no more than ten direct reports. Once that number is exceeded, the organizational structure needs to be reviewed and changed.
    Specification - Description of the technical requirements for a material, product, or service, including the criteria for determining that the requirements have been met. Generally, three types of specifications are used in projects: performance, functional, and design.
    Sponsor - The individual or group who champions the project and provides the resources, in cash or in kind. Provides the executive leadership, priority and commitment to the project, its goals and objectives. This is the manager representing the organizational unit most affected by the business change. If several organizational units will be heavily impacted by the business change, this is an executive manager with authority over the majority of the organizational units.
    Stakeholders - (1) Individuals and/or groups who are involved in or may be affected by project activities. (2) The people who have a vested interest in the outcome of the project.
    Standard - (1) Basis for uniformly measuring or specifying performance. (2) Document used to prescribe a specific consensus solution to a repetitive design, operations, or maintenance situation. (3) Document approved by a recognized body that provides for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for products, processes, or services; however, compliance is not mandatory. (4) Documentation that establishes engineering and technical limitations and applications of items, materials, processes, methods, designs, and engineering practices.
    Statement Of Work (SOW) - The SOW describes the specific tasks, activities and deliverables the contractor will provide to the project. The SOW is used with some type of contract vehicle to establish binding responsibility for the work to be performed. An SLA may be included or referenced by the SOW, if appropriate.
    Status Report - (1) Description of where the project currently stands; part of the performance reporting process. (2) Formal report on the input, issues, and actions resulting from a status meeting.
    Strategic Plan - A plan that is tightly tied to the organization's mission, vision, values and objectives, and depends heavily on high-level coordination and influences management to achieve their goals.
    Strategy - Action plan to set the direction for the coordinated use of resources through programs, projects, policies, procedures, and organizational design and establishment of performance standards.
    Strengths- Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) Analysis - Analysis used to determine where to apply special efforts to achieve desired outcomes. Entails listing: (1) strengths and how best to take advantage of them; (2) weaknesses and how to minimize their impacts; (3) opportunities presented by the project and how best to take advantage of them; and (4) threats and how to deal with them.
    Structured Walkthrough - Systematic, comprehensive review of the requirements, design, or implementation of a system by a group of qualified experts.
    Sub-process - A set of related activities and tasks within a process.
    System Architecture - Manner in which hardware or software is structured, that is, how the system or program is constructed, how its components fit together, and what protocols and interfaces are used for communication and cooperation among the components, including human interaction.
    System Design - Translation of customer requirements into comprehensive, detailed functional, performance, or design specifications, which are then used to construct the specific solution.
    System Environment - The hardware and software platforms including development tools and databases, as well as the shop standards and styles, in which the system exists.
    System Interface - The services, system, or mechanisms that a business system uses to gather or provide information. The source varies from external systems services or information repositories, or the internal data source which is managed by the business system. Physical interfaces among connecting parts of a system, or performance interfaces among various functional or product subsystems.
    System Requirement - A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system to satisfy a condition or capability needed by a user(s).
    System Requirements Specification (SyRS) - Developed by the project to describe the business and system requirements based on the user/sponsor needs. The SyRS is included or referenced in the RFP and forms the basis for the system. The prime contractor further refines the requirements in their Software Requirements Specification and resulting design documents.
    System Testing - When a new or modified object is processed in combination with other objects to insure it works as part of the complete system.
    System Test Summary Report - This report describes how test activities were performed and a summary of the results of the test. The report should provide a clear picture of what tests were performed, what types of problems were found, the severity of problems found, how the problems were resolved (or what is currently being done to resolve them), and if the system was sufficiently tested to provide confidence that the system is ready for the next phase.
  • T
    Table - set of data elements (values) that is organized using a model of vertical columns (which are identified by their field name) and horizontal rows (records).
    Target Date - (1) Date an activity is planned to start or end. (2) Date generated by the initial CPM schedule operation and resource allocation process.
    Tasks - The smallest unit of work performed by an organization, which is limited in duration and scope.
    Technical Complexity - This represents the technical difficulty or risk associated with a particular business issue or opportunity that is driving a need for change.
    Technical Reference Model - is a framework to describe how standards and technologies support the secure delivery, exchange, and construction of Service Components.
    Technical Requirements - Description of the features of the deliverable in detailed technical terms to provide project team members with crucial guidance on what needs to be done on the project.
    Technical Walkthrough - A thorough review of the object, using the detail specifications, test plan, test results, and shop standards, to ensure that the object construction is sound and meets the design.
    Technology Trends - Widely recognized forces or patterns of change that can be used to infer or predict the future of technology.
    Template - A guideline for a document outline and its contents. A template is used to record the work activities, discussions, findings, and specification to help achieve a common understanding. In addition it is used to provide a consistent look and feel to the project documentation.
    Templates - Set of guidelines that provide sample outlines, forms, checklists, and other documents.
    Test Plan - Defining responsibilities, identifying test methodologies and phases, identifying the test environment throughout the project lifecycle.
    Test Scripts - A record of actions to be performed, expected results, and actual results used to test the effect of the modifications.
    Test Strategy - The Test Strategy is used to help the project office clarify expectations with the user and sponsor (and contractor) regarding their obligations in the testing and acceptance of the new system in the user environment. The prime contractor may also prepare a Master Test Plan (as part of the contract) that describes their approach to all testing phases and the activities for which they are responsible.
    Threshold - Time, monetary unit, or resource level, placed on something, which is used as a guideline that, if exceeded, causes some type of management review to occur.
    Timeline - A schedule showing a planned order or sequence of events and procedures.
    Traceable - The origin of each requirement is clear and can be traced backward to the stakeholder need forward to other products.
    Traceability - 1) Ability to trace the history, application, or location of an item or activity by means of recorded identification. (2) Ease with which a project can be traced forward from specifications to the final deliverable or backward from the deliverable to the original specifications in a systematic way.
    Trade-Off - Giving up or accepting one advantage, or disadvantage, to gain another that has more value to the decision maker. For example, accepting the higher cost (a disadvantage) of a project because there will be more functionality (an advantage) in the delivered product.
    Transition Support Plan - This plan essentially serves as a final review prior to operations and maintenance and details the service/performance level agreement that all stakeholders share.
    Travel Budget - The Travel budget is established to allocate funds for travel on behalf of the project. Typically travel includes site visits to the counties/local offices to prepare for implementation, attendance at federal or national conferences and select training symposiums. The travel budget is submitted annually in accordance with the DOF process.
  • U
    Unallowable Cost - Cost incurred by a contractor that is not chargeable to the project on which the contractor is working.
    Unit Test - A test of an object to see if remediation efforts were successful. The unit test does not test how well the object will work with the application and other applications.
    User - Ultimate customer for the product; the people who will actually use it.
    User Requirements - Specific product, service, or other business need that the project is intended to meet.
    User Training Plan - The User Training Plan describes the approach to training the system users. This plan includes the different types of training (staff, lead, manager, administrator), the specific courses and course materials, the training approach, and how training effectiveness will be measured and addressed. This plan may be developed by the prime contractor or the project office.
  • V
    Variance - Actual or potential deviation from an intended or budgeted amount or plan. Difference between a plan and actual time, cost, or performance.
    Vendor - Distributors of commonly available goods or services when requirements and specifications are well defined.
    Version - A Version is: (1) An initial release or re-release of a computer software CI, associated with a complete compilation or recompilation of the computer software CI. (2) An initial release or complete re-release of a document, as opposed to an amendment resulting from issuing change pages to a previous release.
    Version Control - Version Control is the systematic process that captures and maintains accurate date and content information of the successive versions of the CIs.
    Vision Statement - A statement that captures the long-term picture of what the organization wants to become. A vision statement must be inspirational, memorable and reflect the desires of those with vested interests.
  • W
    Waiver - Intentional or voluntary relinquishment of a known right or conduct that warrants an inference that the right has been relinquished. Under the doctrine of waiver, a party can relinquish rights he or she has under the contract. For example, the right to strict performance is waived if the contractor delivers incomplete or defective products or delivers after the scheduled date and the project manager does not object or demand that the defects be corrected.
    Walk-through - (1) A peer review and examination of the requirements, design or implementation of a project by qualified experts to ensure that the project objectives will be met. (2) Process used by software developers whereby a group of knowledgeable peers mentally step through the design and logic flow of a program with test cases to identify errors and inconsistencies. (3) Rehearsal of an operational procedure by stimulating the execution of all its steps except those that are high risk or prohibitively expensive.
    Work Acceptance - Work is considered accepted when it is conducted, documented, and verified according to acceptance criteria provided in the technical specifications and contract documents.
    Work Authorization - Permission for specific work to be performed during a specific period; generally used in cases where work is to be performed in segments because of technical or funding limitations.
    Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) - A product- or deliverable-based grouping of project work that defines the scope of work for the project. The WBS does not identify organization or responsibility, nor does it describe dependencies between products.
    Workflow - Activities or steps that add or change a product or service as the process develops. These are activities or steps the customer views as important.
    Work Plans, County - These plans (one for each county) outline the component of effort that county stakeholders must employ in support of a statewide implementation. County work plans are integrated into the overall project schedule via guidance and coordination provided by the project office.
    Work Plans, Project Office - Detailed descriptions of work activities performed by the project office in carrying out the duties of the project office. The work plans are derived from and traceable to the WBS elements, include interfaces from the prime contractor schedule, county schedules, and form the basis for network diagramming, critical path analysis, and the creation of the master project schedule.
    Work Products - An item (usually a document or software) produced by the project office.
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    No Items.
  • Y
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  • Z
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